First, let’s grant that they are right in everything they say about the current composition and internal structure of the sun, as well as fusion, which I believe is the primary energy source of the sun (see ‘Missing’ neutrinos found! But they can’t possibly deduce age from this unless they know the starting composition—see How dating methods work.They believe that life appeared on the earth about 3.8 billion years ago.This was dealt with in the chapter by that name (chapter 1).Second, generation of living organisms from non-living matter, or origin of life.And it does not work on rocks or thoroughly mineralized fossils; it is only useful for relatively well-preserved organic materials such as cloth, wood, and other non-fossilized materials.Other methods must be used to estimate the age of rocks and minerals.By the way, it is important to understand that most rock strata “dates” were actually assigned long before the first use of radioactive age estimating methods in 1911.
Presently, nature appears to be more steady, more firm and more refractory [resistant] to changes than we thoughtbefore we had made a clear distinction between hereditary variability [within species] and acquired characteristics [DNA characteristics fixing each species]. Salet, Hasard et Certitude: Le Transformisme devant la Biologie Actuelle (1973), p. Several methods for dating ancient materials have been developed.
All of us can and do experience the indirect effects of evolution nearly every day, however.
One of the more important evolutionary concerns facing humans today is the emergence of antibiotic-resistant microbes.
This will be covered in the chapters, Primitive Environment (chapter 9), and DNA (chapter 10).
Third, evolution of living organisms into more advanced life forms by natural selection or mutations.